Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10790/5386

Hawaiian forest bird conservation strategies for minimizing the risk of extinction: biological and biocultural considerations

Item Summary

Title:Hawaiian forest bird conservation strategies for minimizing the risk of extinction: biological and biocultural considerations
Authors:Paxton, Eben H.
Laut, Megan
Enomoto, Stanton
Bogardus, Michelle
Keywords:Avian malaria
Captive wild birds--Breeding
Hawaii--Kauai
Hawaii--Maui
Hawaiians
show 10 moreHawaii forest birds
indigenous
Mosquitoes--Control
Traditional ecological knowledge
translocation
Wolbachia
Oreomystis bairdi
Loxops caeruleirostris
Pseudonestor xanthophrys
Palmeria dolei
show less
Date Issued:14 Apr 2022
Series:HCSU Technical Report Series;103
Abstract:The iconic forest birds of Hawai‘i are facing a conservation crisis. Across the Hawaiian Islands,
native forest birds have been experiencing population declines that have accelerated in the last
one to two decades. While habitat loss, invasive species, and non-native predators have
negatively affected forest bird species for hundreds of years, and continue to do so, introduced
diseases, particularly avian malaria, are the greatest threat to forest birds today. Further,
climate change has increased temperatures in the high-elevation forests, facilitating the spread
of disease into areas that were once largely disease-free. Rapid population declines have now
(2022) pushed four Hawaiian honeycreeper species to the brink of extinction: the endangered
‘akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘akeke‘e (Loxops caeruleirostris) on Kaua‘i Island, and kiwikiu
(Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and ‘ākohekohe (Palmeria dolei) on Maui Island. The biologists that
study these birds strongly agree that without a rapid conservation response to the threat of
increasing disease mortality there is a high probability these species will go extinct in the
coming decade. To help evaluate alternative conservation strategies for minimizing the risk of
extinction, we convened diverse groups of experts with broad experience in Hawai‘i forest birds
and ecosystems, as well as the management approaches being considered, to assess the
probability of success of alternative management actions. In addition to assessing this crisis
from a biological perspective, we convened a group of Native Hawaiian participants that have a
strong connection to the forest birds, forests, and the integration of their culture in natural and
biocultural resource management. They give voice to the significance of forest birds to Native
Hawaiians and provide their perspectives on alternative management actions. Broadly, the three
alternative management actions being considered to prevent the extinction of forest birds from
the increasing threat of disease are (1) landscape-level mosquito control through the Wolbachia
incompatible insect technique, (2) captive care, and (3) conservation translocations. The two
key components of the problem of preventing extinction in these four bird species is time and
risk. For each species, very few individuals remain, and they are all in danger of imminent
extinction. Each management action takes time to implement, which might exceed the actual
time to extinction. Additionally, each of these conservation actions has potential benefits and
inherent risks, as well as substantial uncertainty in terms of being successful. Native Hawaiian
perspectives and considerations also vary across the conservation actions. The expert
evaluations summarized in this report provide a broad assessment of conservation strategies
that could be undertaken to prevent the extinction of ‘akikiki, ‘akeke‘e, kiwikiu, and ‘ākohekohe.
While this report does not recommend specific actions, the information is intended to support
decision-makers as they assess which, if any, conservation strategies to pursue. // Ke hālāwai nei nā manu o ka nahele o Hawai‘i me ka pōpilikia maluō. Ma ka pae ‘āina ‘o Hawai‘i, ke emi mai nei nō ka nui manu a keu aku ma nā makahiki he 10 a 20 i hala aku nei. I loko nō o ka pā hewa o ka manu no nā makahiki he lō‘ihi a he mau haneli i ka nele o kahi e noho ai, ka lāhulu komo hailapu, a me ka po‘ii‘a malihini, ‘o ka ma‘i malihini, ‘o ia ho‘i ka avian malaria, ka mea nui e pau nei ka manu ‘ānō. Ua pi‘i pū ho‘i ka mehana o ka nahele o nā wao ki‘eki‘e a‘e i ka mehana honua e laha ai ua ma‘i nei i nā wahi loa‘a mua ‘ole o ua ma‘i nei. Ua lilo ka pau ‘emo ‘ole ‘ana o ka manu he kumu e pau nei ka ‘ehā lāhulu manu mūkīkī i ka make loa: ‘o ka ‘akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) lāua me ka ‘akeke‘e (Loxops caeruleirostris) ma ka mokupuni ‘o Kaua‘i a me ke kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) lāua me ka ‘ākohekohe (Palmeria dolei) ma ka mokupuni ‘o Maui. Ua lōkahi ka mana‘o o nā akeakamai kālaimeaola nāna e noi‘i ana i kēia po‘e manu, he nui loa ka papaha o ka pau o ua mau lāhulu nei i ka make loa i loko o nā makahiki he ‘umi e hiki mai auane‘i ke pa‘a ‘ole ke ki‘ina ho‘omaluō e lapa‘au ai. I mea e kālailai ‘ia ai nā ka‘akālai ho‘omaluō e emi ai ka pau loa ‘ana o ka manu i ka make loa, ua ho‘ohui ‘ia nā mea mākaukau o nā ‘ano like ‘ole nona ka ‘ike laulā i ka manu o ka nahele a kaiaola o Hawai‘i a me nā ala ho‘omalu e no‘ono‘o ‘ia ana e noi‘i ai i ka papaha o ka puka o ua mau ki‘ina ho‘omalu nei. Ma waho o ka noi‘i i ka pōpilikia ma ke kuana‘ike kālaimeaola, ua ho‘ohui pū ‘ia he hui o nā kānaka Hawai‘i nona ka pilina ikaika i ka manu o ka nahele, ka nahele, a me ka ‘āwili ‘ia o ka mo‘omeheu Hawai‘i ma ka ho‘omalu kumuwaiwai ao kūlohelohe e komo ai ka mana‘o i ka mea nui o ka manu i ke kānaka Hawai‘i me ka hāpai pū ‘ia o ka mana‘o no nā ki‘ina ho‘omalu pū kekahi. Ma ka laulā, he ‘ekolu ki‘ina ho‘omalu e no‘ono‘o ‘ia nei he ala e pau ‘ole ai ka manu o ka nahele i ka make loa, 1) ke kāohi makika ma o ka Wolbachia incompatible insect technique, 2) ka hānai ka‘awale, a me 3) ka ho‘omaluō ka‘awale. ‘O ka manawa a me ka ‘a‘a i ka hana nā kumuloli nui ‘elua o ke pani i ka pau ‘ana o kēia mau lāhulu manu ‘ehā i ka make loa. No kēlā me kēia lāhulu, kāka‘ikahi nō ke koe ‘ana mai o kona mau manu a ke hālāwai maoli nei nō me ka pōpilikia o pau i ka make loa. He wā ka mea e pono ai kēlā me kēia ki‘ina ho‘omalu e hele ana paha a ma ‘ō aku o ka manawa e pau ai ua mau manu nei i ka make loa. He hopena maika‘i a maika‘i ‘ole nō paha ko kēia mau ki‘ina ho‘omalu, a pēlā pū ke kānalua nui i ka puka a me ka puka ‘ole nō paha. ‘Oko‘a pū ke kuana‘ike o ke kānaka Hawai‘i no kēlā me kēia ki‘ina ho‘omalu. Hō‘ike nā mana‘o o nā mea mākaukau i hō‘ulu‘ulu ‘ia ma kēia mo‘olelo he ‘ike laulā no nā ki‘ina ho‘omaluō e lawelawe ‘ia e pani ‘ia ai ka pau ‘ana o ka ‘akikiki, ka ‘akeke‘e, ke kiwikiu, a me ka ‘ākohekoke i ka make loa. I loko nō o ka hāpai ‘ole ‘ia o nā ki‘ina pono‘ī, i mea ho‘i ka ‘ike o loko e kāko‘o ‘ia ai nā mea nona ka mana ho‘oholo ma ke koho paha i ke ki‘ina ho‘omaluō e ‘imi ‘ia aku.
Description:Technical report with figures and tables
Pages/Duration:125 pages
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/10790/5386
Rights:Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/
Appears in Collections: Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit (HCSU)


Please email libraryada-l@lists.hawaii.edu if you need this content in ADA-compliant format.

This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons